Geostatistical Modelling of Groundwater Quality at Rumuola Community, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Victor E. Amah
Fortune A. Agu


The groundwater quality of Rumuola community of Rivers State, Nigeria was investigated. This study was done to determine the pollution potential of a solid waste open dump in a borrow pit in the community. The leachate pollution index was calculated for the borrow pit at the centre of the community using weighted additive leachate pollution index. The result showed that the LPI value was 5.31 and has low pollution potential. It was discovered that the groundwater in the entire community was acidic with pH levels ranging from 3.6 to 4.2, which is below NSDWQ’s permissible range of 6.5-8.5. Nickel and arsenic also showed concentrations that were above permissible limits with nickel values averaging 0.033 mg/l which is slightly above the limit of 0.02 mg/l. Arsenic had concentrations that ranged from 0.16 to 1.57 mg/l which is above permissible limits of 0.01 mg/l. WQI was determined using weighted arithmetic water quality index analysis. As a result of the high concentrations of arsenic, the WQI values were very high with values ranging from 144 to 1367 and this shows that the water in the study area is unsuitable for drinking. In modelling the water quality index of Rumuola community, geostatistical methods were applied. Ordinary kriging, Empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK), inverse distance weighting (IDW) and cokriging interpolations methods were used   to produce surface maps showing the distribution of variables using ARCGIS software. The best interpolators were: EBK for pH, TDS, Sulphate and nitrate; Ordinary kriging for Nickel and Hardness; IDW for Iron and arsenic; Cokriging for WQI.

Water quality index, geostatistics, kriging, groundwater pollution, groundwater modeling, geostatistical modeling.

Article Details

How to Cite
Amah, V. E., & Agu, F. A. (2020). Geostatistical Modelling of Groundwater Quality at Rumuola Community, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 12(1), 37-47.
Original Research Article


Singh S, Hussian A. Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India. Cogent Engineering. 2016;3(1):1–17.

Oni O, Fasakin O. The use of water quality index method to determine the potability of surface water and groundwater in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste dumpsite in Nigeria. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). 2016;5:96–101.

Pitt R, Clark S, Field R. Groundwater contamination potential from stormwater in ® ltration practices. 2000;1(1999).

Hassan J. A Geostatistical approach for mapping groundwater quality (Case Study: Tehsil Sheikhupura). International Journal of Science and Research. 2014;3(4):239–245.

Batabyal A, Chakraborty S. Hydrogeo-chemistry and water quality index in the assessment of groundwater quality for drinking uses. Water Environment Research. 2015;87.

Lateef A, Kolawole LL, Agosu SO, Biology A. Quality assessment of some groundwater samples in Ogbomoso Metropolis, Southwest Nigeria. 2012; 2(6):39–48.

Chindah AC, Braide SA, Obunwo CC. Water quality of streams receiving municipal waste water in Port Harcourt, Niger Delta, Nigeria. InTech. 2011;1–23.
[ISBN: 978-953-307-233-3]

Oyeku OT, Eludoyin AO. Heavy metal contamination of groundwater resources in a Nigerian urban settlement. 2010;4(April): 201–214.

Wongsasuluk P, Chotpantarat S. Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani Province; 2013.

Dhakate R, Singh VS. Heavy metal contamination in groundwater due to mining activities in Sukinda valley, Orissa - A Case Study. 2008;1(4):58–67.11.

Słomczyńska B, Słomczyński T. Physico-chemical and toxicological characteristics of leachates from MSW landfills. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2004; 13(6):627–637.

Mamuyovwi O. Modeling leachate pollution and water quality indices for selected for municipal solid waste dump sites in warri metropolis. University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt; 2017.

Alam P, Ahmade K. Impact of solid waste on health and the environment. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Green Economics (IJSDGE). 2013;2(1):165–168.

Sethy SN, Syed TH, Kumar A. Evaluation of groundwater quality in parts of the Southern Gangetic plain using water quality indices. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2017;76(3):1–15.

Aydın O, Türkoğlu N, Çiçek İ. International journal of human sciences. Journal of Human Sciences. International Journal of Human Sciences. 2002;12.

Krivoruchko K. Empirical bayesian kriging. Esri: Redlands, CA, USA; 2012.

Narany TS, Ramli MF, Aris AZ, Sulaiman WNA, Fakharian K. Spatial assessment of groundwater quality monitoring wells using indicator kriging and risk mapping, Amol-Babol Plain, Iran. Water (Switzerland). 2014;6(1):68–85.

Karami S, Madani H, Katibeh H, Fatehi Marj A. Assessment and modeling of the groundwater hydrogeochemical quality parameters via geostatistical approaches. Applied Water Science. 2018;8(1):1–13.

Mehrjard RT, Jahromi MZ, Mahmodi S, Heidari A. Spatial distribution of groundwater quality with geostatistics (Case Study: Yazd-Ardakan Plain). World Applied Sciences Journal. 2008;4(1):9– 17.

UNEP. Environmental Assessment of ogoniland site specific fact sheets; 2011.

Ngah SA, Ubong IU, Ozoekwe VE. Impact of municipal wastes on the water quality around rumuola borrow pit, Rivers State, Nigeria. International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2016; 3(8):84–89.

Satish Chandra D, Asadi SS, Raju MVS. Estimation of water quality index by weighted arithmetic water quality index method: A model study. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology. 2017;8(4):1215–1222.

Kumar D, Alappat BJ. Analysis of leachate contamination potential of a municipal landfill using leachate pollution Index. Workshop on Sustainable Landfill Management. 2003;147–153.

Shankar S, Shanker U. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation; 2014.

SON, NIS. Nigerian standard for drinking water quality, (NIS-554-2015). 2015;1–2.