Main Article Content
Water is very crucial for the survival and maintenance of most living organisms. The quality of water available for plant, animal or human use cannot therefore be compromised. This study therefore examined the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water samples in Okomu National Park, Edo State, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from four waterholes (three rivers and one stream) for two seasons (dry and wet) using grab sampling technique. These water samples were analysed for physicochemical [temperature, pH, total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, chloride, phosphate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and microbiological (total coliform and fungal counts) analyses using standard methods. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and T-test at α0.05 and compared with WHO permissible limits. The result showed that the mean COD (both seasons) and BOD (dry season) were above the comparable WHO permissible limit while there was no significant difference in the values of all the physicochemical parameters across the seasons of sampling. Salmonella / Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus were observed to be absent while the total coliform and fungi counts were observed to be higher than the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. The detection of Escherichia coli in the water samples (except Arakhuan stream) is an indication of faecal contamination either of animal or human origin. There was significant difference in total heterotrophic bacteria (t=-4.936) and total coliform counts (t=-2.417) in the waters sampled. Constant monitoring of the waterholes and intensified sensitization of the surrounding communities on ecosystem conservation is needed to protect the park’s ecosystems.
Hahn MW. The microbial diversity of inland waters. Curr Opinion Biotechnol. 2006;217:256-261.
El-Amier YA, El-Kawy Zahran MA, Al-Mamory SH. Assessment the physico-chemical characteristics of water and sediment in Rosetta Branch, Egypt. Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 2015a;7:1075-1086.
Taha AA, El-Mahmoudi AS, El-Haddad IM. Pollution sources and related environmental impacts in the new communities’ Southeast Nile Delta, Egypt. Emirates Journal for Engineering Research. 2004;9:35-49.
Raji MIO, Ibrahim YKE, Tytler BA, Ehinmidu JO. Physicochemical characteristics of water samples collected from River Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences. 2015;5:194-199.
Wilson DC. Potential urban runoff impacts and contaminant distributions in shoreline and reservoir environments of Lake Havasu, Southwestern United States. Sci. Total Environ. 2018;621:95–107.
El-Amier YA, Zahran MA, Al-Mamoori SO. Environmental changes along Damietta branch of the river Nile, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Sciences, Mansoura University. 2015b;44:235-255.
Amadi AN, Olasehinde PI, Okosun EA, Yisa J. Assessment of the water quality index of Otamiri and Ora-miriukwa Rivers. Physics International. 2010;1(2):116–123.
Onojeghuo AO, Onojeghuo AR. Mapping forest transition trends in Okomu reserve using Landsat and UK-DMC-2 satellite data. South African Journal of Geomatics. 2015;4:4.
Soladoye MO, Oni O. Biodiversity studies at Okomu Forest Reserve in Edo State. A Report of the National Agricultural Research Project; 2000.
Ajayi SS. Case study 2: Multipurpose forest management for bush meat production: A success story from West Africa, FAO; 2011.
Aishvarya N, Malviya MK, Tambe A, Sati P, Dhakar K, Pandey A. Bacteriological assessment of River Jataganga, located in Indian Himalaya, with reference to physicochemical and seasonal variations under anthropogenic pressure: A case study. Journal of Environmental Microbiology. 2018;1(1):10-16.
Patra AP, Patra JK, Mahapatra NK, Das S, Swain GC. Seasonal variation in physicochemical parameters of Chilika Lake after opening of new mouth near Gabakunda, Orissa, India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences. 2010;2:109-117.
El Bouraie MM, Motawea EA, Mohamed GG, Suoseura MY. Water quality of Rosetta branch in Nile Delta, Egypt. Finnish Peatland Society. 2011;62:31-37.
Adetuga AT, Omonona AO, Jubril AJ. Physicochemical characteristics of selected waterholes in a Wildlife Park: A case study of Old Oyo National Park, Oyo State, Nigeria (In press); 2019a.
Ajibade WA, Ayodele IA, Agbede SA. Water quality parameters in the major rivers of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2008;2(7):185-196.
Agbaire PO, Obi CG. Seasonal variations of some physico-chemical properties of River Ethiope water in Abraka, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2009;13(1): 55-57.
Ezzat SM, Mahdy HM, Abo-State MA, Abd El Shakour EH, El-Bahnasawy MA. Water quality assessment of river Nile at Rosetta Branch: Impact of drains discharge. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2012;12:413-423.
Mahananda MR. Physicochemical analysis of surface water and ground water of Bargarsh District, Orissa, India. International Journal of Research and Review in Applied Sciences. 2010;2(3): 284-295.
Dulo SO. Determination of some physicochemical parameters of the Nairobi River, Kenya. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2008; 12(1):57-62.
Dey S, Uddin MS, Manchur MA. Physicochemical and bacteriological assessment of surface water quality of the Karnaphuli River in Bangladesh. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2017; 11(4):1721-1728.
El-Gohary SE, Zaki HR, Elnaggar MF. Physicochemical and eutrophication parameters of coastal water and geochemical characteristics of bottom sediments East of Rosetta Area, Meditteranean Sea, Egypt. World Applied Science Journal. 2011;14:23-36.
Omonona AO, Ajani F, Adetuga AT, Koledoye OJ. Heavy metals contamination in soil and water samples in Omo Forest Reserve, Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2019a;22:207-214.
Samuel PO, Adakole JA, Suleiman B. Temporal and spatial physicochemical parameters of river Galma, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Resources and Environment. 2015;5(4):110-123.
Omonona AO, Adetuga AT, Nnamuka SS. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water samples from the Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research. 2019b;7(2):1-15.
Okpokwasili GC, Akujobi TC. Bacteriological indicators of tropical water quality. Environ Toxicol. 1996;11:77-81.
Adetuga AT, Omonona AO, Jubril AJ. Microbiological evaluation of waterholes in a wildlife park: Assessment of potential microbial exposure (In Press); 2019b.
Strauch AM. Seasonal variability in fecal bacteria of semiarid rivers in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Marine Freshwater Resources. 2011;62:1191-1200.
Kumar A, Bisht BS, Joshi VD, Singh AK, Talwer A. Physical, chemical and bacteriological study of water from river of Uttarakhand. Journal of Human Ecology. 2010;32(3):169- 173.
Sood A, Singh KD, Pandey P, et al. Assessment of bacterial indicators and physicochemical parameters to investigate pollution status of Gangetic river system of Uttarakhand (India). Ecological Indicators. 2008;8:709-717.
Davies-Colley RJ. River water quality in New Zealand: An introduction and overview. In Dymond JR, Ed. Ecosystem services in New Zealand – conditions and trends. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln, New Zealand; 2013.
Fiello M, Mikell Jr AT, Moore MT, Cooper CM. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2014;93(2):133.