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Agriculture plays a central role within the Ethiopian economy. In our country, concerning 85% of total population depends on agriculture and its product. This implies agriculture provides a good portion of national product growth. In spite of the importance of this sector, production and productivity area units restricted by varied biophysical, social and economic aspects. Soil fertility decline is one of the central issues that scale back Ethiopian agriculture and at last, it ends up in poverty and starvation. The main causes of those entrenched challenges are the land degradation showed in type of soil fertility decline, as introduced by varied hindrances as deforestation, overgrazing and through a consequence of wearing away, deposit, pollution, etc. Hence, the core objectives of this review are to evaluate the soil fertility status in Ethiopia, the sources of soil fertility decline and find improved resolutions to soil fertility in Ethiopia. As the physiological factors of the country are rugged with dynamical sorts of soils, preponderantly the upland wherever regarding 90% of the tillable land is concentrated, difficulties such as soil erosion, meager and incessant cultivation are the chief reasons of soil fertility loss. Thus, the application of combined soil fertility management approach with presence and mixture of manure, compost, crop rotation, soil protection practices provides improved production and saves the soil fertility standing to an improved level. The apply undertaken by the government of Ethiopia, is that the application of optimum rate of fertilizers, but it's not thriving as a results of various factors like amendment of agroecology, edaphic factors, the social and economic state of affairs of the farmer, repair to property combined soil fertility management to get high yield while not compromising the soil fertility position within the future, this can be broad and needed to be followed.
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