Main Article Content
The study investigate a series of selected heavy metal pollution of soil, the extent of their uptake by Telfairia occidentalis and Amaranthus cruentus as well as their ecological risk around dumpsite in Chanchaga Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Soil samples were collected at 15 cm depth with the aid of soil auger and vegetable samples were collected from dumpsite and other samples with no activities served as control. The soil samples were collected at random and their physicochemical parameters such as pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic matter, total carbon and exchangeable cations (i.e., K+, Mg2+ and Na+) using a standard method and concentrations of the heavy metals in soils and vegetables, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb were analyzed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The ecological health risk assessment from the consumption of these vegetables was calculated using standard methods. The result showed a significant (p-value) increase of AC and TO in test soil samples relative to the control soils. The pH of the soil in dumpsite and control site was 5.93, and 7.35 respectively. Mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb in the dump site were 6.35, 4.84, 6.67, 7.35, 5.72 and 4.96 mg/kg while the control site were 1.18, 0.28, 1.26, 6.83, 1.19 and 3.54 mg/kg respectively which was below the WHO/FAO limits of As (20), Cd (3.0), Cr (100), Cu (100), Hg (2.00) and Pb (50 mg/kg) for soil. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb recorded in AC dump site were As (6.13), Cd (3.67), Cr (5.37), Cu (4.28), Hg (3.46), and Pb (4.52) and in TO As (5.67), Cd (3.13), Cr (4.67), Cu (3.65), Hg (3.19) and Pb (4.27 mg/kg) which were above the WHO/FAO permissible limits (0.5, 0.20, 0.3, 3.0, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) respectively for edible vegetable. The concentrations of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from the dumpsite soil were significant (p < 0.05) from the controls. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for the vegetable showed that they exclude the element from soil. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard index (HI) show that there is no harmful effect since the values obtain were not greater than >1. But continuous consumption can accumulate in the food chain especially for children. This study showed that the soils and vegetables within the vicinity of the dumpsites were polluted by heavy metals which can pose health risk. The study also calls for proper waste management practices and policy implementation.
Oguh CE, Uzoefuna CC, Oniwon WO, Ugwu CV, Ahaiwe PT, Okeke CB, Ezikanyi GK. Risk assessment on bioaccumulation of potentially toxic elements on soil and edible vegetables Corchorus olitorius and Amaranthus cruentus grown with water treatment sludge in Chanchaga Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology. 2019;8(2):92-103.
Arora M, Bala K, Shweta R, Anchal R, Barinder K, et al. Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables irrigated with water from different sources. Food Chemistry. 2008;111(4):811-815.
Barakat M (2011). New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arab J. of Chem. 4(1): 361–377.
Shahid M, Shamshad S, Raﬁq M, Khalid S, Bibi I, et al. Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxiﬁcation in soil-plant system: A review. Chemosphere. 2017b;178:513–533.
Ayansina SA, Olubukola OB. A new strategy for heavy metal polluted environments: A Review of Microbial Biosorbents. Int. J. of Environ. Res and Public Health. 2017;14:9-4.
Dixit R, Malaviya D, Pandiyan K, Singh UB, Sahu A, et al. Bioremediation of heavy metals from soil and aquatic environment: An overview of principles and criteria of fundamental processes. J. of Sustainability. 2015;7:2189–2212.
Djingova R, Kuleff I. Instrumental techniques for trace analysis. Trace Metal Environment. 2000;4:137–185.
Tanee FBG, Eshalomi-Mario TN. Heavy metal contents in plants and soils in Abandoned Solid Waste Dum Psites in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology. 2015;9(6): 342-349.
Liu X, Song Q, Tang Y, Li W, Xu J, et al. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: A multi-medium analysis. Science of the Total Environment. 2013;463:530-540.
Maobe MAG, Gatebe E, Gitu L, Rotich H. Profile of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes, malaria and pneumonia in Kisii region, Southwest Kenya. Global J. of Pharmacology. 2012;6(3):245–251.
Ndukwu BC, Obute GC, Eze E. Uptake and accumulation of heavy metals by plants on abandoned refuse dumpsites in parts of Rivers State, Nigeria. Scientia Africana. 2008;7:130-140.
Ndeddy A, kah RJ, Babalola OO. Effect of bacterial inoculation of strains of
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes feacalis and Bacillus subtilis on germination, growth and heavy metal (Cd, Cr, and Ni) uptake of Brassica juncea. Int. J. of Phytoremediation. 2016;18(10): 200–209.
Akcil A, Erust C, Ozdemiroglu S, Fonti V, Beolchini F. A review of approaches and techniques used in aquatic contaminated sediments: Metal removal and stabilization by chemical and biotechnological processes. J. of Clean Production. 2015; 86:24–36.
Akoroda MO. Ethnobotany of Telfairia occidentalis (Curcurbitacae) among Igbos of Nigeria. Economic Botany. 1990a;1:29-39.
Badifu GIO, Ogunsua AO. Chemical composition of kernels from some species of Cucurbitaceae grown in Nigeria. Plant Foods Human Nutrition. 1991;41(1): 35-44.
Mavengahama S. The contribution of indigenous vegetables to food security and nutrition within selected sites in S. A. Stellenbosh University. 2013;1:0-27.
Conrad Z, Susan R, Lisa J. Greater vegetable variety and amount are associated with lower prevalence of coronary heart disease: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2014. Nutrition J. 2018;17:67.
Santhakumar AB, Battino, M, Alvarez-Suarez JM. Dietary polyphenols: Structures, bioavailability and protective effects against atherosclerosis. Food Chemistry and Toxi. 2018;113:49–65.
Zhao Q, Kaluarachchi JJ. Risk assessment at hazardous waste-contaminated sites with variability of population characteristics. Environ. Int. J. 2002;28: 41–53.
Fonge BA, Nkoleka EN, Asong FZ, Ajonina SA, Che VB. Heavy metal contamination in soils from a municipal landfill, surrounded by banana plantation in the eastern flank of Mount Cameroon African. J. of Biotech. 2017;16(25):1391-1399.
Tirima S, Batrem C, Lindern I, Braun M, Lind D, et al. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic due to artisanal gold mining in Zamfara, Nigeria, Environ. Health Perspective. 2016; 124(9):1471-1478.
Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal M, Marshall FM. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food Chemical and Toxi. 20104;8:611-619.
Amadi BA, Akaninwor JO, Igwe FU, Amadi EI. Biochemical impact of sludge obtained from wastewater treatment plant on soil properties within Port Harcourt Environment. J. of Environ and Analitical Toxicol. 2018;8:540.
DOI: 10.4172/2161- 0525.1000540
Farouk M, Farouk A, Umer R. Appraisal of heavy metal contents in different vegetables grown in the vicinity of an industrial area. Pakistian J. of Botany, 2008;40(5):2099-2106.
Nimyel DN, Egila JN, Lohdip YN. Heavy metal concentrations in some vegetables grown in a farm treated with urban solid waste in Kuru Jantar, Nigeria. British Journal of Applied Science and Technol. 2015;8(2):139-147.
Sobukola OP, Adeniran OM, Odedairo AA, Kajihausa OE. Heavy metal levels of some fruits and leafy vegetables from selected markets in Lagos, Nigeria. Afr. J. of Food Sci. 2010;4(2):389–393.
Olowoyo JO, Van Heerden E, Fischer JL, Baker C. Trace metals in soil and leaves of Jacaranda mimosifolia in Tshwane area, South Africa. Atmospheric Environment. 2010;44(20):1826–1830.
Olowoyo JO, Lion GN. Population health risk due to dietary intake of toxic heavy metals from Spinacia oleracea harvested from soils collected in and around Tshwane, South Africa. South Afri. J. of Botany. 2013;88(11):178–182.
Nabulo G, Young SD, Black CR. Assessing risk to human health from tropic leaf vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils. Sci. of the Total Environ. 2010;408:5338–5351.
Bongekile OZ, Flatuwan NM, Puffy S. The chemical composition of baby
spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) as affected by Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
nutrition. J. of Environ. Sci. 2014;30(3):46-52.
Drechsel P, Scott CA, Raschid-Sally L, Redwood M, Bahri A. Wastewater irrigation and health. Assessing and mitigating risk in low income countries. Earth scan, International Water Management Institute, Int. Develop. Res. Centre, Canada. 2010;432.
Uba S, Uzairu A, Harrison GFS, Balarabe M.L, Okunola OJ. Assessment of heavy metals bioavailability in dumpsites of Zaria metropolis, Nigeria Afri. J. of Biotechno. 2008;7(2):122-130.
Elaigwu SE, Ajibola VO, Folaranmi FM. Studies on the impact of municipal waste dump on surrounding soil and air quality of two cities in northern Nigeria. J. of Applied Sci. 2007;7(3):421-425.
Gupta AK, Sinha S. Chemical fractionation and heavy metal accumulation in the plant of Sesamum indicum (L.) Var. T55 grown on soil amended with tannery sludge: selection of single extractants. Chemosphere. 2006;64:161-173.
Osazee OJ, Obayagbona ON, Daniel EO. Microbiology and physicochemical analyses of top soils obtained from four municipal waste dumpsite in Benin City, Nigeria. Int. J. of Microbiology and Mycology. 2013;1(1):23-30.
WHO/FAO. Codex alimentarius commission. Food additives and contaminants. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, ALINORM 10/12A; 2001.
Awokunmi A, Asaolu S, Ipinmoroti K. Effect of leaching on heavy metals concentration in some dumpsites. Afri. J. of Environ. Sci. and Technol. 2010;4(8):495-499.
Opaluwa OD, Aremu MO, Ogbo LO, Abiola KA, Odiba IE, et al. Heavy metal concentrations in soils, plant leaves and crops grown around dump sites in Lafia Metropolis, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Pelagia Res. Library Advances in Applied Sci. Res. 20132;3(2):780-784.
Jung HG, Casler MD. Maize stem tissues: Impact of development on cell wall degradability. Crop Sci. 2006;46(4):1801.
Steve ON, Edith AO. Effects of sludge on the concentration of heavy metals in soil and plants in Obunga Slum, Kisumu County, Kenya. Int. J. of Environm. Sci. and Natural Resources. 2018;15(2):1-5.
Chen YN, Wang L, Zhang WJ. Speciation of cadmium and changes in bacterial communities in red soil following application of cadmium polluted compost. Environ. Engr. Sci. 2018;27(12):1019-1026.
WHO/FAO. Joint FAO/WHO food standard programme codex alimentarius commission 10th session. Working document for information and use in discussions related to contaminants and toxins in the gsctff (prepared by Japan and the Netherlands). 2016;4–8.
FAO/WHO. Toxicological evaluation of certain food additives and food contaminants. (Twenty-eight meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on food additives). Washington, DC: ILSI Press International Life Sciences Institute; 1984.
Alloway BJ. Heavy metals in soils, Halsted Press, John Wiley and Sons Inc. London, UK. 1996;240.
Fatoba PO, Adepoju AO, Okewole GA. Heavy metal accumulation in the fruits of tomato and okra irrigated with industrial waste effluents. J. of Industrial Pollu and Contr. 2012;28(2):103-107.
Amusan AA, Ige DV, Olawale R. Characteristics of soils and crops' uptake of metals in municipal waste dump sites in Nigeria. J. Hum. Ecol. 2005;17:167-171.
Wang Y, Fang J, Leonard SS, Rao KM. Cadmium inhibits the electron transfer chain and induces reactive oxygen species. Free Radical Biol. and Medicine. 2004;36:1434-1443.
Benedicta YF, Emmanuel A, Dzidzo Y, Frank N. Heavy metals concentration and distribution in soils and vegetation at Korle Lagoon area in Accra, Ghana. Cogent Environ. Sci. 2017;3:1-14.
Oguh C. Egwu, Ugwu C. Victor, Uzoefuna C. Casmir, Usman Sa’adat, Nkwocha C. Chibueze, Amanabo Musa. Toxicity impact on bioaccumulation of potentially toxic elements in African Giant Land Snail (Archachatina margenata) treated with different soils and Its Ecological Risk Assessment. Asian Journal of Research in Biochemistry. 2019;4(4):1-15.
Sloof W, Clevan RF, Janus JA, Ros JPM. Integrated criteria document copper Bilthoven, Netherland: National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection; 1989.
Report No. 758474009
Sheldon AR, Menzies NW. The effect of copper toxicity on the growth and root morphology of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Knuth.) in resin buffered solution culture. Plant and Soil. 2005;278:341-349.
Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H. Physiological plant ecology III: Responses to the chemical and biological environment. Springer Science and Business Media; 2013.
Amusan AA, Ige DV, Olawale RJ. Characterization of soil crops uptake of metals in contaminated soil. Environ. Sci. J. 2005;17(3):167–171
Khan SA, Khan L, Hussain I, Marwat KB, Ashtray N. Profile of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants. Pakistan J. of Weed Sci. Res. 2008;14(1–2):101–110.
Nagajyoti P, Lee K, Sreekanth T. Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: A review. Environ. Chem. 2010;8(1):199–216.
Alloway BJ. The origin of heavy metals in soils. In Alloway BJ. (Ed). Heavy metals in soils. Blackie, Glasgow and London. 1990; 29-39.
Basapor N, Ngabaza T. Toxicological effect of chlorpyrifis and lead on the acquatic snail Helisoma duryi. Advances in Biological Chemistry. 2015;5: 225–233.
Gall JE, Boyd RS, Rajakaruna N. Transfer of heavy metals through terrestrial food web: A review. Environ. Monitoring Assessment. 2015;187:201–213.
Huang Z, Lu Q, Wang J, Chen X, Mao X, et al. Inhibition of the bioavailability of heavy metals in sewage sludge biochar by adding two stabilizers. 2017;12.
Bakare AJM, Reeves RD, Hajar ASM. Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in British populations of the metallophyte thalaspi Caerulescens J. and C. Presl (Brssicaceae). New Phytologist. 1994;127 (1):161-168.
Yang XE, Long XX, Ni WZ. Assessing copper thresholds for phytotoxicity and potential dietary toxicity in selected vegetables crops. J. of Environ. Sci. and Health Part B. 2002;37:625-635.
USEPA. Multimedia, multi-pathway and multi-receptor risk assessment (3MRA) modellling system. U.S Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington DC. 2002;1-9.