Investigation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Pollution Impact on Groundwater Quality and Agricultural Soils

Main Article Content

S. A. Nta
I. J. Udom
S. O. Udo

Abstract

A field study was conducted to investigate palm oil mill effluent (POME) pollution impact on ground water quality and agricultural soils. Raw POME and two water samples were also collected from the downstream and upstream locations away from the effluent discharge point using 1 litre capacity container. This was found less than 100 m from the mill. Soil samples from the POME dumpsite as well as non-POME soil were collected. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, total hardness, turbidity, sulphate, COD, BOD5, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity and percentage saturation for water samples were determined. pH, water holding capacity, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic matter (TOM), total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable cations: K, Na, Ca, Mg and cation exchange capacity for soil. Data obtained from the study were subjected to statistical analyses of variance (ANOVA). Significant variations exist in most of the physicochemical variables among the sampled parameters. Data for water samples were also compared with world health organization and Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Most of these parameters indicated pollution but were below the standard limits for consumption. pH, EC, total hardness, turbidity, sulpahte, COD, BOD5, TDS, TSS, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, % saturation were all significant difference from each other. Soil pH, EC, TOC, total nitrogen, available P, TOM, Ca and exchangeable acidity were also all significant difference from each other. It is concluded that a strong move towards quality and environmental management through ecological improvement and cleaner technology approach within manufacturing industries in Nigeria is implemented.

Keywords:
Pome, composition, impact, water quality, agricultural soil

Article Details

How to Cite
Nta, S. A., Udom, I. J., & Udo, S. O. (2020). Investigation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent Pollution Impact on Groundwater Quality and Agricultural Soils. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 12(1), 28-36. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajee/2020/v12i130151
Section
Original Research Article

References

Nwaugo VO, Chinyere GC, Inyang CU. Effects of palm oil mill effluents (POME) on soil bacterial flora and enzyme activities in Egbama. Plant Product Research Journal. 2008;12:10–13.

Ma AN. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent. In: Singh G, Huan LK, Teo L, Lee DK. (Eds.). Oil palm and the environment. A Malaysian Perspective. Malaysian Oil Palm Growers’ Council, Malaysia. 1999;113-123.

Ahmad A, Ismail S, Bhatia S. Water Recycling from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using Membrane Technology. Desalination. 2003;157:87- 95.

Okwute OL, Isu NR. Impact Analysis of Palm oil mill effluent on the aerobic bacterial density and ammonium oxidizers in a dumpsite in Anyigba, Kogi State. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2007; 6(2):116-119.

Wu TY, Mohammad AW, Jahim J, Anuar N. A Holistic approach to managing Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME): Biotechnological advances in the sustainable reuse of POME. Biotechnology Advances. 2009; 27(1):40-52.

Khalid AR, Mustafa WAW. External benefits of environmental regulations; Resource recovery and the utilisation of effluents. The Environmentalist. 1992; 12(4):277-285.

Ma AN, et al. Current status of palm oil processing waste management in: Yeoh B. G, et al., (eds) Waste management in Malaysia: Current Status and Prospects for Bioremediation. 1993;111-136.

Md Din MF, et al. Storage of Polyhydroxyyalkanoate (PHA) in Fed-batch Mixed Culture using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). In: 4th Seminar on Water Management (JSPS-VCC), Johor. 2006; 119-127.
Available:http://www.mpob.gov.my/2012

Wu G, Bazer FW, Burghardt RC. Impacts of amino acid nutrition on pregnancy outcome in pigs: Mechanisms and implications for swine production. J. Anim Sci. 2010;88:E195-E20.

Habib MAB. et al. Nutritional values of chironomid larvae grown in palm oil mill effluent and algal culture. Aquaculture. 1997;158:95-105.

Muhrizal SJ. et al. Changes in iron-poor acid sulphate soil upon submergence. Geoderma. 2006;131:110-122.

James R. Effects of Lead on respiratory enzyme activity, glycogen and blood sugar levels of the teleost Oreochromis Mossambicus (Peters) during accumulation and depuration. Asian Fisheries Science. Metro Manila. 1996;9: 87-100.

Ahmad A, Ismail S, Bhatia S. Water recycling from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using membrane technology. Desalination. 2003;157:87- 95.

Ngan MA, Zajima Y, Asahi M, Junit H. A novel treatment processes for palm oil mill effluent; 1996.

Chan KS, Chooi CF. Ponding system for palm oil mill effluent treatment. in procregional workshopon palm oil mill effluent technology and effluent treatment PORIM, Malaysia. 1982;185-192.

Sridhar MKC, Adeoluwa OO. Palm oil industry residue. Biotechnology for Agro-industrial Residues Utilization. Nigam P.S and Pandey A. (eds.). Springer Science. 2009;341-355.

Awotoye OO, Dada AC, Arawomo G.AO. Impact of palm oil processing effluent discharging on the quality of receiving soil and rivers in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2011;7(2):111-118.

Hartley CWS. The products of the oil palm and their extraction. oil palm 3rd Ed. Longman scientific and technical with john wiley and sons, Inc. New York: 1988;721-724.

Ezemonye LIN, Ogeleka DF, Okiemen FE. Acute toxicity of industrial detergent (neatex) and corrosion inhibitor (Norust CR 486) to early Stage of Cichlids; Tilapia Guineensis. Chemistry and Ecology. 2007; 23(2):1-8.

Ezemonye LIN, Ogeleka DF, Okieimen FE. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2008; 157(1):64 - 68.

APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 21st Ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC; 2005.

Brady NC, Weil RR. The nature and properties of soil 12th Edition. Prentice-Hall Inc. 1990;363.

Agbenin JO. Laboratory manual for soil and plant analysis (selected methods and data analysis). Faculty of Agriculture/ Institute of Agricultural Research, A.B.U. Zaria. 1995;7-71.

Kalembasa SJ, Jenkinson DS. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice-Hall Inc. New York. 1973;23-25.

Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS. Total nitrogen In: C.A. Black. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2, Agronomy 9. American Society of Agronomy Inc. Madison, Wisconsin. 1982;1149-1178.

International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A.). Selected methods for soil and plant analysis, Manual Series. I.I.T.A. Ibadan. 1979;1:4-12.

Olsen SR, Sommers LE. Phosphorus In: A. L. Page, R.H. Millerand D.R. Keeney (eds.) methods of soil analysis, Part 2, Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Madison, Wisconsin. 1982;403-430.

International Finance Corporation (IFC). Environment, health, and safety guidelines for vegetable oil processing. World Bank Group. 2007; 7.

Awotoye OO, Dada AC, Arawomo GAO. Impact of palm oil processing effluent discharging on the quality of receiving Soil and rivers in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2011;7(2):111–118.

Manjare SA, Vhanalakar SA, Muley DV. Analysis of water quality using physico-chemical parameters tamdalge tank in kolhapur district, Maharashtra. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research. 2010;1(2): 115-119.

Wood BJ, Pillia KR, Rajaratnam JA. Palm oil mill effluent disposal on land. Agricultural Wastes. 1979;1:103127.

Abulude FO, Obidiran GO, Orungbemi S. Determination of physico-chemical parameter and Trace metal contents of drinking water samples in Akure Nigeria. EJEAFChe. 2007;6(8):2297-2303.

Adeyeye EI, Ayejuyo OO. Assessment of the physicochemical status of a textile industry’s effluent and its environment. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 2002;45:10-16.

WHO (World Health Organization). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. (4TH ed.); 2011.

NSDQW. Nigerian standard for drinking water quality. Nigerian Industrial Standard NIS 554, Standard Organization of Nigeria, Lagos; 2015.

Hemming ML. Available solution to the palm oil effluent problem. In: proceedings of the Malaysian International Symposium on palm oil processing and marketing. D.A. Earp and W. Newall (eds.) KualaLumpur, 17-19th: 1977;79-95.

Batjes NH. Total carbon & nitrogen in the soils of the world. European J. of Soil Sci. 1996;47(2):151-163.

Nelson DW, Sommers LQE. Total carbon, organic carbon and matter. In: A. L. Page, R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney (eds.) methods of soil analysis, Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Madison, Wisconsin. 1982;539-579.

Deiana S, Gessa C, Manunza B, Rausa R, Sebeer R. Analytical & spectroscopic characterization of humic acids extracted from sewage sludge, Manure and Worm Compost. Soil Sci. 1990;150(1):419-426.

Okwute LO, Isu NR. The environmental impact of palm oil mill effluent (pome) on some physico-chemical parameters and total aerobic bioload of soil at a dump site in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2007;2(12):656-662.