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Municipal Solid Waste management is one of the most fundamental issues in the contemporary urban environments particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. A huge generation of waste coupled with unbalanced waste management services is the major challenges facing the City of Addis Ababa. A continuous increase of production of more wastes and change in the composition of waste into complex, the waste management practice is challenged by low prioritization of waste management, limited revenues for financing waste management with the ever increasing population of this city. This retrospective study received documents from books, thesis works, annual waste management conference reports, journals on waste management, newsletters, abstracts and proceedings which can properly address the main factors that strongly hinder proper waste management and the extent to which community is aware of appropriate waste disposal systems in Addis Ababa city. The mechanism of Addis Ababa city Sanitation, Beautification and Park Development Authority to coordinate stakeholders has played a vital role in waste management. However, the daily monitoring of waste management by the community development section has not been sufficient because of poor governance where accountability, participation and transparency are lacking. It is also unauthorized solid waste dumping practice problem in different locations and has an effect on water sources and its resources. Effective involvement of both private and public sectors should improve waste management and provide door-to-door collection, street sweeping and facilitate drainage disposable canals. Therefore, an integrated solid waste management practice should be implemented for the City and also for the surrounding environment. As a result, strong political will, multi-sectoral approach, public awareness and participation, strategic planning, adequate funding and the adoption of Integrated Solid Waste Management is recommended SWM system required in Addis Ababa city.
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